Dictionary
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 chaos
 Chaos is the breakdown of predictability, or a state of disorder (cf Chaos Discussion, also Chaos is Everywhere Discussion).
 cipher
 Ciphers are codes for writing secret messages. Two simple types are shift ciphers and affine ciphers (cf Cryptography and Ciphers Discussion).
 complementary angles
 Two angles that have a sum of 90 degrees.
 class interval
 In plotting a histogram, one starts by dividing the range
of all values into nonoverlapping intervals, called class intervals, in such a way
that every piece of data is contained in some class interval (cf Class Interval: Scale and Impression Discussion,
Mean, Median and Mode Discussion, also Vertical Scale Discussion: Increase or Decrease?).
 coefficients
 The numbers in front of the letters in a mathematical expression, for example, in: 4d + 5t^{2} + 3s, the 4, 5, and 3 are coefficients for the d, t^{2}, and s
(cf Pascal's Triangle Discussion).
 combinatorics
 The science that studies the numbers of different combinations, which are
groupings of numbers. Combinatorics is often part of the study of probability and
statistics (cf Tables and Combinatorics Discussion).
 commutative property
 This property of both
multiplication and addition states that you can rearrange the order of the numbers being
added or reorder numbers being multiplied without changing the value of the expression.
In mathematical terms, for all real numbers a and b, a+b=b+a and ab=ba.
 complex numbers
 One can think of them as an ordered pair of numbers. Complex numbers
helped earlier mathematicians deal with the problem of taking the square root of a negative number. A complex number takes the form a + b*sqrt(1), where a and b are real numbers (cf Two Variable Functions Discussion).
 concave up
 A curve is "concave up" when it is a concave shape, meaning
curved like the inside of a bowl, with the two ends of the curve pointing up. (cf Gathering Information from Graphs Discussion).
 conditional probability
 Conditional probability is the probability of an event occurring given that another
event also occurs. It is expressed as P(A/B). It reads "Probability of Event A on
condition of Event B." P(A/B) = P(A and B)/P(B), where P(B) is the probability of event
B and P(A and B) is the joint probability of A and B (cf
Conditional Probability Discussion).
 congruent
 Two figures are congruent
to one another if they have the same size and shape (cfRectangles and Squares
Discussion).
 constant functions
 Functions that stay the same no matter what the variable does are called constant
functions
(cf Gathering Information from Graphs Discussion).
 constants
 In math, things that do not change: for example distance, volume, mass, are called
constants. The things that do change are called variables (cf Gathering Information from Graphs Discussion).
 continuous graph
 In a graph, a continuous line with no breaks in it forms a continuous graph
(cf Impossible Graphs Discussion).
 coordinate plane (Cartesian)
 A plane with a point selected as an origin, some length selected as a unit of distance,
and two perpendicular lines that intersect at the origin, with positive and negative
direction selected on each line. Traditionally, the lines are called x (drawn from
left to right, with positive direction to the right of the origin) and y (drawn from
bottom to top, with positive direction upward of the origin). Coordinates of a point
are determined by the distance of this point from the lines, and the signs of the
coordinates are determined by whether the point is in the positive or in the negative
direction from the origin
(cf From Graphs to Machines and Back Discussion).
 coordinates
 A unique ordered pair
of numbers that identifies a point on the coordinate plane. The first
number in the ordered pair identifies the position with regard to the
xaxis while the second number identifies the position on the yaxis
(cf
Introduction To The Coordinate Plane
and Coordinates Discussion).
 corresponding angles
 Two angles in the same relative position on two lines when those lines are cut by a transversal.
 cube
 A prism with six square faces.
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