Dictionary
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 addition
 The operation, or process, of calculating the sum of two
numbers or quantities (cf Integer Addition and Subtraction
Discussion, Fraction Adding and Subtracting Discussion).
 absolute value
 The distance a number is from zero on the number line. For example, 5 is 5 units away from zero. It would be written as 5.
 acute angle
 An angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees (cf Angles Discussion).
 adjacent angles
 Two angles that share a ray, thereby being directly next to each other (cf Angles Discussion).
 affine cipher
 Affine ciphers use linear functions to scramble the letters of secret messages (cf Cryptography and Ciphers Discussion).
 alternate exterior angles
 Angles located outside a set of parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal (cf Angles Discussion).
 alternate interior angles
 Angles located inside a set of parallel lines and on opposite sides of the transversal (cf Angles Discussion).
 angle bisector
 A ray that divides an angle into two congruent angles.
 area
 The number of square units needed
to cover a surface (cf Length, Area,
and Perimeter Lesson).
 arithmetic mean
 See mean
(cf Mean, Median and Mode
Discussion).
 associative property
 This property applies both to
multiplication and addition and states that you can group several numbers that are being
added or multiplied (not both) in any way and yield the same value. In mathematical
terms, for all real numbers a, b, and c, (a+b)+c=a+(b+c) or (ab)c=a(bc).
 average
 It is better to avoid this sometimes vague term. It usually refers to the (arithmetic)
mean, but it can also signify the median, the mode, the geometric mean, and weighted
means, among other things
(cf Mean, Median and Mode Discussion).
 average expected payoff
 An estimate of the amount that will be gained in a game of chance, calculated
by multiplying the probability of winning by the number of points won each time
(cf Expected Value Discussion).
 axioms of probability
 There are three axioms of probability: 1. Probability is always more than zero
2. The chance that something happens is 1,or 100% 3. If two events cannot both occur at
the same time, the chance that either one occurs is the sum of the chances that each
occurs.
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