The goal of this lesson is to introduce the concepts of the normal curve, skewness and the
standard deviation. The controversy over the 1994 book is also examined.

Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, students will:

have been introduced to the normal distribution

have an understanding of how the normal distribution has been used and misused to support conclusions

Standards Addressed:

Grade 10

Statistics and Probability

The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data.

The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating, making predictions, describing trends; drawing, formulating, or justifying conclusions).

Grade 6

Statistics and Probability

The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data.

The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating; drawing or justifying conclusions).

Grade 7

Statistics and Probability

The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data.

The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating, making predictions; drawing or justifying conclusions).

Grade 8

Statistics and Probability

The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data.

The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating, making predictions, describing trends; drawing, formulating, or justifying conclusions).

Grade 9

Statistics and Probability

The student demonstrates an ability to classify and organize data.

The student demonstrates an ability to analyze data (comparing, explaining, interpreting, evaluating, making predictions, describing trends; drawing, formulating, or justifying conclusions).

Sixth Grade

Statistics and Probability

Develop understanding of statistical variability.

Summarize and describe distributions.

Statistics and Probability

Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable

Grades 9-12

Data Analysis and Probability

Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data

Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them

Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data

8th grade

Data Analysis and Probability

The student will demonstrate through the mathematical processes an understanding of the relationships between two variables within one population or sample.

Student Prerequisites

Arithmetic: Student must be able to:

Students should understand sums, differences, and quotients for all activities.

Geometric: Students must be able to:

Students will need to understand both the concept of area in general and, specifically, the area of a rectangle.

Technology: Students must be able to:

Each student or group of students working together will need a computer with a Java-capable browser. Students should be comfortable using the computer and browser. Calculators may be helpful for solving problems that arise in discussions.

Teacher Preparation

Students will need access to a Java-capable browser.

Students will need pencil and paper.

Students will need copies of the following worksheets:

Especially if doing the Bell Curve sections "live", the instructor should have some
background on the bell curve .

Key Terms

bell curve

See normal distribution

mean

The sum of a list of numbers, divided by the total number of numbers in the list. Also called arithmetic mean

median

"Middle value" of a list. The smallest number such that at least half the numbers in the list are no greater than it. If the list has an odd number of entries, the median is the middle entry in the list after sorting the list into increasing order. If the list has an even number of entries, the median is equal to the sum of the two middle (after sorting) numbers divided by two. The median can be estimated from a histogram by finding the smallest number such that the area under the histogram to the left of that number is 50%

normal distribution

Also called "bell curve," the normal distribution is the curved shape of a graph that is highest in the middle and lowest on the sides

standard deviation

Standard deviation tells how spread out numbers are from the average, calculated by taking the square root of the arithmetic average of the squares of the deviations from the mean in a frequency distribution

Lesson Outline

Focus and Review

Have students review key terms and concepts related to this lesson including:

Area of a rectangle

Various representations of data

Mean, median, mode, and range

Percentages

Objectives

Let students know what they will be learning and doing today. Say something like this:

Today we are going to be looking at one specific way that mathematicians and statisticians
look at data: the bell curve. We will be examining what this representation is and the
controversy behind it.

We will be using the computer and Internet later, but for now I want you to keep the computer
closed.

Teacher Input

Lead a
discussion on the "Bell Curve" controversy.

Guided Practice

Introduce the concept of standard deviation or spread with the
normal distribution activity. Also explore the differences between individual data points, samples of various sizes, and
expected theoretical distributions.

Revisit the ideas of mean, median, mode, and standard deviation graphically with the
Skewness activity.

Closure

Interconnect ideas of theoretical and experimental probability with discrete-valued histograms and continuous
distributions.

Alternate Outline

Look at the normal distribution without discussing the bell curve controversy. This saves time
and avoids controversial material.

Relate the histograms produced by the normal and skew distributions to the idea of finding
area under a curve by counting the rectangles that fit under it (simple graphical numerical
integration). Use the grid and the scale on the normal distribution to find the area under the
normal curve. (It should be close to 1).

Suggested Follow-Up

This lesson introduced the notion of the normal curve and illustrated a real life (mis)use of the
statistics drawn from a given situation. Revisiting the initial lessons on
Statistics and Shopping and
Probability and Sports and applying the new knowledge on statistics would make an excellent capstone activity.