# Curriculum Elements for Advanced Air Quality Models

## Essential Science

### Mathematics

• Vector Analysis
• Solving vector equations
• Calculus and Differential Equations
• Differential calculus
• Integral calculus
• Solving differential equations
• Probability and Statistics (Basic Theory)

### Air Pollution Concentration Statistics

• Probability distributions for air pollution concentrations
• Properties of the binormal variate distribution (Gaussian equation)
• Percentiles
• Standard deviation of pollutant concentrations
• Exceedances of the standard
• Selection of averaging times
• Alternative forms of air quality standards

### Chemistry

• Atomic structure and the elements
• Molecular structure
• Chemical bonds
• Chemical equations
• Stoichiometry and limiting reagents
• Reaction rates
• Equilibrium
• Theory
• Conditions for equilibrium
• Thermodynamics
• Introduction to Organic Chemistry
• Organic nomenclature
• Classes of Air Pollutants
• VOCs
• Inorganic gases
• Particulates
• Air Pollution Chemistry
• Gas-phase atmospheric chemistry
• Aqueous-phase atmospheric chemistry
• Mass transfer aspects of atmospheric chemistry
• Aerosols
• Specific Chemical Pathways of Pollutants (formation, breakdown)
• Ozone
• Acid deposition
• Toxics

### Physics

• Phases of matter (Gas, liquid, solid)
• Ideal Gas Law
• Vapor pressure
• Motion
• Straight line
• Rotational
• Newton's Laws of Motion
• Gravitation
• Newton's law of gravitation
• Weight vs. mass
• Fluid Mechanics
• Temperature and Heat
• Thermal Properties of Matter
• Electric Charges and Electric Fields
• Electromagnetic Waves
• Light/Visibility
• Reflectance

### Engineering

• Control technologies
• Introduction to various methods of control
• Collection efficiencies
• Emissions
• What are emissions?
• Where do they come from?
• What factors affect the amount of emissions?
• How are they classified?
• Criteria pollutants
• Toxics
• Types of sources
• Point sources
• Area sources
• Mobile sources
• Biogenic sources
• How are emissions monitored/measured?
• Time intervals
• How are emissions estimated?
• Source test
• Material balance
• Emission factors
• Source classification codes (SCCs)
• Limitations
• Emissions inventory procedures
• Estimation Tools (FIRE, TANKS, AP-42)
• What's in the databases?
• How are they used?

### Meteorology

• The Earth and its atmosphere
• Composition
• Vertical structure
• Atmospheric energy balance
• Energy balance for Earth and atmosphere
• Greenhouse effect
• Temperature and heat transfer
• Conduction
• Convection
• Daily temperature variations
• Humidity and Condensation
• Vapor pressure
• Dew point
• Wind
• Forces that Influence the Wind
• Coriolis force
• Scales of motion
• Global, regional, urban, point/plume
• Vertical scales
• Give examples of meteorological phenomena falling into these categories
• Global atmospheric circulation patterns
• Westerly winds and jet streams
• Local Circulation Effects
• Topography
• Land-Sea Breeze
• Mountain-Valley Winds
• Air masses, fronts, cyclones
• Atmospheric Stability and Vertical Mixing
• Adiabatic Heating and Cooling During Vertical Air Movement
• The Effect of Lapse Rate on Vertical Stability
• Temperature Inversions
• The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL)
• Mixing height
• Similarity theory - Parameterizations (simplifying reality)
• Processes
• Convection
• Deposition - removal
• Precipitation
• Terrain
• Above the Planetary Boundary Layer
• Processes
• Convection
• Deposition - removal
• Precipitation
• Physical Meteorology
• Aerosols, Acid Deposition, PM-10
• Visibility
• Transport and dispersion
• Measurements/Instruments
• Direct (cups and vanes)
• Indirect (profilers and sounders)
• Surface vs. aloft

## Modeling

• What is a model?
• Function of models
• Inputs, algorithms, outputs
• Limitations of models
• Uncertainty
• Sensitivity
• What is an air quality model?
• Four kinds of models (Add physical?)
• Analytical
• Eulerian
• Lagrangian
• Statistical
• Current models
• Dispersion models
• Gaussian (point/area/line)
• Grid (urban/regional/global)
• UAM
• UAMGUIDES
• Models-3
• Overview of Models-3
• Features (modularity, comprehensive, extensible, etc.)
• Purpose/function
• Which pollutants will be modeled?
• Ozone
• Acid deposition (future)
• Aerosols and toxics (future)
• Hourly concentrations of pollutants
• How the system works
• What are the components of the system?
• Input/output databases
• Preprocessors
• Submodels (Transport and dispersion, DSS, etc.)
• How do these components relate to/interact with each other? The process.
• Transport and dispersion modules, MM-5 (Met Model, version 5)
• How do they work?
• Data requirements
• What data is required?
• Guidelines for data usage, projection into future
• Sources for data
• Format
• QA/QC
• Assumptions
• Limitations
• Chemical reaction modules
• How do they work?
• Data requirements
• What data is required?
• Guidelines for data usage, projection into future
• Sources for data
• Format
• QA/QC
• Assumptions
• Limitations
• Emissions Database
• What data is required?
• Guidelines for data usage, projection into future
• Sources for data
• Format
• QA/QC
• Cost Database (control technology)
• Developing control strategies
• Running Models-3 - Scenarios
• Defining the problem/ goal setting
• Defining initial conditions
• Decision support
• "What if" scenarios
• Optimization strategies
• Sensitivity Analysis
• Model interpretation
• Are the results reasonable?
• Strategies for understanding model results

## Computer Science

• Overview of computer applications - what computers can do, how they can help you do your job
• How to interact with computers (interfaces, the mouse)
• How to navigate through system
• How to customize toolbars
• Unix system basics
• Computer requirements for running Models-3
• Memory
• Speed
• Programming languages?
• Database management
• Files