Words, numbers, and phrases that can be read the same backwards as forwards. Some examples include: "mom", "racecar", "34543", or the phrase "never odd or even"

paradox

A statement that appears to contradict itself, for example, suggesting a solution which is actually impossible

parallel

Lines that are in the same plane that do not intersect

parallelogram

A quadrilateral that contains two pairs of parallel sides

pattern

Characteristic(s) observed in one item that may be repeated in similar or identical manners in other items

percent

A ratio that compares a number to one hundred. The symbol for percent is %

perimeter

The sum of the lengths of all the sides of a polygon

permutation

A a particular ordering of a set of objects. For example, given the set {1, 2, 3}, there are six permutations: {1, 2, 3}, {1, 3, 2}, {2, 1, 3}, {2, 3, 1}, {3, 1, 2}, and {3, 2, 1}

personal view

An approach taken by mathematicians and philosophers to calculate probability. Using their knowledge and reasoning skills, they think through the problem. See theories of probability

Petal Curve

See Rose Curve

Pi

The designated name for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, represented by the symbol π

pie graph

A diagram showing a system of connections or interrelations between two or more things by using a circle divided into segments that look like pieces of pie

polar axis

in the polar coordinate system, a ray from the pole in a fixed direction, analogous to the x-axis in the Cartesian system. The angle between this fixed ray and a ray through the pole and the point of interest gives the value of theta in the coordinate pair (r, θ) used in the polar coordinate system.

pole

in the polar coordinate system, a fixed point, analogous to the origin in the Cartesian coordinate system. The distance from this point to a point of interest gives the value of r in the coordinate pair (r, θ) used in the polar coordinate system.

polygon

A closed plane figure formed by three or more line segments that do not cross over each other

polyhedra

Any solid figure with an outer surface composed of polygon faces

prime number

A number that has exactly two factors, 1 and the number itself

prisoners

A complex number is a prisoner in a Julia Set if its orbit, a sequence of complex numbers generated by successive iterations of a given function, is bounded.

probability

The measure of how likely it is for an event to occur. The probability of an event is always a number between zero and 100%. The meaning (interpretation) of probability is the subject of theories of probability. However, any rule for assigning probabilities to events has to satisfy the axioms of probability

proportion

A relationship between two ratios is proportional if the two ratios are equal in value.

protractor

An instrument used to measure and draw angles on a flat surface.

Pythagorean Theorem

Used to find side lengths of right triangles, the Pythagorean Theorem states that the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the squares of the two sides, or A^{2} + B^{2} = C^{2}, where C is the hypotenuse