# C

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Cardioid
The resulting graph in polar coordinates of a function of the form a+b*sin(t) or a+b*cos(t) where |a| = |b|

chaos
Chaos is the breakdown of predictability, or a state of disorder

cipher
Ciphers are codes for writing secret messages. Two simple types are shift ciphers and affine ciphers

class interval
In plotting a histogram, one starts by dividing the range of all values into non-overlapping intervals, called class intervals, in such a way that every piece of data is contained in some class interval

coefficients
The numbers in front of the letters in a mathematical expression, for example, in: 4d + 5t2 + 3s, the 4, 5, and 3 are coefficients for the d, t2, and s

combinatorics
The science that studies the numbers of different combinations, which are groupings of numbers. Combinatorics is often part of the study of probability and statistics

commutative property
This property of both multiplication and addition states that you can rearrange the order of the numbers being added or reorder numbers being multiplied without changing the value of the expression. In mathematical terms, for all real numbers a and b, a+b=b+a and ab=ba

complementary angles
Two angles that have a sum of 90 degrees

complementary probability
Considering probabilites in decimal form, the sum of two probabilites equal to one. As a percent, the two probabilites are considered complementary if they sum to 100%.

complex numbers
One can think of them as an ordered pair of numbers. Complex numbers helped earlier mathematicians deal with the problem of taking the square root of a negative number. A complex number takes the form a + b*sqrt(-1), where a and b are real numbers

compound event
Two or more events that happen simultaneously

concave up
A curve is "concave up" when it is a concave shape, meaning curved like the inside of a bowl, with the two ends of the curve pointing up

concentric circles
circles that have the same center and varying radii.

conditional probability
Conditional probability is the probability of an event occurring given that another event also occurs. It is expressed as P(A/B). It reads "Probability of Event A on condition of Event B." P(A/B) = P(A and B)/P(B), where P(B) is the probability of event B and P(A and B) is the joint probability of A and B

congruent
Two figures are congruent to one another if they have the same size and shape

constant functions
Functions that stay the same no matter what the variable does are called constant functions

constants
In math, things that do not change are called constants. The things that do change are called variables.

continuous graph
In a graph, a continuous line with no breaks in it forms a continuous graph

coordinate plane
A plane with a point selected as an origin, some length selected as a unit of distance, and two perpendicular lines that intersect at the origin, with positive and negative direction selected on each line. Traditionally, the lines are called x (drawn from left to right, with positive direction to the right of the origin) and y (drawn from bottom to top, with positive direction upward of the origin). Coordinates of a point are determined by the distance of this point from the lines, and the signs of the coordinates are determined by whether the point is in the positive or in the negative direction from the origin

coordinates
A unique ordered pair of numbers that identifies a point on the coordinate plane. The first number in the ordered pair identifies the position with regard to the x-axis while the second number identifies the position on the y-axis

correlation
A statistical measure referring to the relationship between two random variables. It is a positive correlation when each variable tends to increase or decrease as the other does, and a negative or inverse correlation if one tends to increase as the other decreases.

correlation coefficient
A numerical value (between +1 and -1) that identifies the strength of the linear relationship between variables. A value of +1 indicates an exact positive relationship, -1 indicates an exact inverse relationship, and 0 indicates no predictable relationship between the variables.

corresponding angles
Two angles in the same relative position on two lines when those lines are cut by a transversal

cross section
A two-dimensional "slice" of a three dimensional object

cube
A prism with six square faces

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